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Articles in Press

January 2016

Volume 2 Issue 1
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Review Article

Protocol For A Randomised, Multicentre, Double Blinded Phase III Study Of Perioperative Ketorolac In Women Of African Descent With Operable Breast Cancer

Romano Demicheli, Erhabor Osaro*, Michael Retsky,Forget Patrice,Vaidya Jayant S, Bello SO

Cancer remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy occurring in women around the world. The aim of this present protocol is to outline the procedure for a randomised, multicentre, double blinded phase III study of perioperative Ketorolac in Women of African Descent with Operable Breast Cancer. The typical type of breast cancer in sub Saharan Africa is triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and is usually considered the worst early breast cancer diagnosis since there are no known targeted therapies and patients often relapse and die early. sub-Saharan Africa seems the perfect place to conduct a randomized controlled double blinded clinical trial of perioperative NSAID Romano Demicheli 1, Erhabor Osaro 2, Michael Retsky 3 Forget Patrice 4.Vaidya Jayant S 5.  

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Research Article 

Dynamometer Measurements of Grip Strength in Frail Elderly Inpatients

M Rosario Beseler Soto*

Sarcopenia and frailty are two clinical entities that generate loss of independence. Sarcopenia is characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength and is a risk factor for fraility and physical disabilities. To diagnose fragility must is necessary 3 of the following 5 criteria: unintentional weight loss, decreased walking speed, low physical activity, fatigue and decreased grip strength.

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Research Article

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Derivatives for Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Subjects in Sokoto, Nigeria

Nnamah*, NK ,Anaja, PO ,Mungadi, IA and Bilbis,LS ,Dallatu,MK

Over the years, many markers have been used for the diagnosis and follow-up of prostate disorders. With its attendant limitations, PSA is the most common marker used. In the present study, PSA ratios; fPSA/cPSA, fPSA/tPSA and cPSA/tPSA were evaluated in 150 prostate cancer (PCa), 200 benign hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 200 controls. Using Mann-Whitney U-Test, free PSA/complexPSA ratio (fPSA/cPSA) was 0. 18±0.01, 0.34±0.02, 0.48±0.02, freePSA/totalPSA ratio (fPSA/tPSA) was 0.19±0.11, 0.34±0.23 and 0.48±0.23 while complexPSA/totalPSA ratio (cPSA/tPSA) was 0.85±0.01, 0.7±0.01 and 0.70±0.01 in PCa, BPH and controls respectively.  
  

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Research Article

The Entero-Insular-Axis is retained in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

Christoph Elsing*,Hi Kha, Wolfgang Stremme, Martin Volkmann

The incretins glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted after meals and are involved in the pathogenesis of different metabolic diseases, such as non alcoholic liver disease (NALD). GLP-1 agonists are in addition evaluated for the treatment of NALD. The role of incretins is the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is however unclear. We determined the secretion of incretins in patients with alcoholic liver disease after oral glucose administration.
  

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Review article

Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: Clinical Consequences and Management

Avraham Ishay*

Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) has been increasingly recognized due to availability of thyroid functioning tests, as a condition characterized by a low or undetectable concentration of serum thyrotropin (TSH) with normal free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels. This entity has emerged due to the increase in sensitivity of TSH assays. Third-generation assays, which have a functional sensitivity of 0.01-0.02 are able to discriminate between complete and incomplete TSH suppression.
  

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Research Article

L-arginine and no levels are diminished in Children of African Descent with Acute Vaso-Occlusive Sickle Cell Crisis in Sokoto, Nigeria

Erhabor Osaro*, Ibrahim Bagudo Aliyu, Abdulrahaman Yakubu, Safiya Mohammed, Imoru Momodu, Udomah Francis,Ahmed Marafa, Ibrahin Kwaifa, Buhari H, Zama Isaac, Okwesili Augustine, Onuigwe Okechukwu, Jiya N, Knox Van Dyke, Egenti Nonye

Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and the most common genetic disease affecting Africans. Alterations in nitric oxide production may have an important role in the pathophysiology of SCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate L-arginine and nitric oxide levels among children of African descent presenting to the Children Emergency Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto with sickle cell disease (SCD). Plasma levels of L- arginine and Nitric Oxide (NO) were measured among 90 children aged 1-6 years and mean age 4.01 ± 0.87 years with sickle cell disease and 50 apparently healthy age-matched controls. The NO and L-arginine levels were significantly higher among normal control children compared to the SCD children (p=0.05).
  

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Review Article

The Urgent and Unmet Need for Safe and Effective Treatment of Agitation

Joseph V. Pergolizzi Jr., MD, Robert B. Raffa PhD, Joseph Pergolizzi III , Gianpietro, Zampogna MD, Charles Fleischer MD ,Robert Taylor PhD and Jo Ann LeQuang BA*

Agitation may occur in many settings: upon emergence from anesthesia, in the context of certain mental illnesses, secondary to brain injury or substance abuse, as a side effect of medication, and with certain forms of cognitive impairment. Agitation occurs frequently in patients with dementia, including but not limited to Alzheimer’s disease. This neuropsychiatric symptom is likely related to dysfunctional neurotransmissions, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. There is no FDA-approved treatment for agitation but several agents are used off-label to help manage agitation, which can be a chronic and troublesome condition in patients with dementia.
  

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